Intensive and Extensive Parametrization of Energy Use and Income in US States and in Global Urban Environments
The restricted environments include large urban areas and US states. This work tests the IPAT parameterization, as applied to fossil fuels induced climate change, in restricted environments with an emphasis on income and energy use. IPAT (Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology) is often seen as tautological but has served as a useful starting point for the quantification of the driving forces for environmental impact in general and for climate changes in particular. The often used tautological linear parameterization is not the only feasible way to separate the contributing variables, but it was found to be appropriate for sovereign states. Testing in different environments is important for policy makers because it might help in policy formulation to maximize the minimization of advert environmental impacts. The results show surprising deviation in presenting the data in their intensive and extensive forms which facilitates differentiation of contributions due to population increase and changes in per capita energy consumption.
||IPAT, Energy Use, Income, Climate Change, Cities, US, States
The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp.97-109.
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Student, Department of Physics, Hunter College, Brooklyn, New York, USA
Interested in Physics and Astronomy as well as helping the environment. Graduated from Brooklyn Technical High School and is currently a sophomore studying physics in the Macaulay Honors program at Hunter College. Has worked with Professor Tomkiewicz over the summer to study what characteristics of cities contribute to the city's levels of carbon emissions and what can be done about it. Currently learning Python to be able to use it for programming and astronomy along with helping to put together a new astronomy textbook. Planning to attend graduate school to earn a higher degree in physics and ultimately pursue a doctorate.
Undergraduate Student, City College Electrical Engineering Department, City College of New York, USA
My name is Michael Cheng. I am currently a senior-year electrical engineering undergraduate at the City College of New York. My principal goal is to conduct research experimenting with new technologies and then inspire students to do the same. I have conducted academic research at several universities including Dartmouth, City, and Brooklyn College. I am currently pursuing a PhD in electrical engineering to realize my goal. I had the privilege of conducting research with Dr. Micha Tomkiewicz, my former mentor at Brooklyn College, a hardworking professor who guided me through demographic data collection, statistical computation, and a concluding presentation that was plainly decipherable and significant. I owe him a great deal for his wonderful motivation and launching off my academic research career.
Professor, Physics, Brooklyn College of CUNY, USA
Dr. Micha Tomkiewicz, Professor of Physics, and founder of the Environmental Studies Program at Brooklyn College and Professor of Physics and Chemistry in the School for Graduate Studies of the City University of New York. Professor Tomkiewicz is an expert in alternative energy sources and on the global consequences of present global energy practices. He wrote 140 refereed articles, edited books and organized international symposia on these topics. He has recently published a book titled “Climate Change: the Fork at the End of Now” – Momentum Press – 2011. The book describes the links between energy use and climate change. Professor Tomkiewicz served as Divisional Editor of the Journal of the Electrochemical Society, Chairman of the “Energy and Technology Division” of the Electrochemical Society and was a member of the International Organizing Committee of conferences on Photochemical Conversion and Storage of Solar Energy.
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